top of page

The Journal of Hyojeong Academia

The 1st volume of the JHJA is published on May, 2023 online.  

The 2nd volume of the JHJA is published on December, 2023 online.  

Forthcoming issue

Current issue

Latest Articles

by Nlandu Roger NGATU. et al.

Knowledge, Practices on HIV Prevention, and Association between HIV Seropositivity, Religious Affiliation and Sexual Violence in Congolese Teenagers: Need for an Integrated School Health and Moral Education 

Journal of Hyojeong Academia 2, 2023 

Abstract The WHO African Region is severely affected with 3.4% of adult population living with HIV. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a country experiencing recurrent armed conflicts for two decades and where sexual violence has been used as a weapon of war by foreign and local terrorist groups, the HIV prevalence is estimated to be 1.26%. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey on sexual transmission of HIV infection prevention in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This was a cross-sectional study consisting in a KAP survey conducted in schools and communities in two provinces, Kinshasa and Kongo central, in DRC. We assessed the knowledge and practices regarding preventive measures for sexual transmission of HIV infection, and searched to determine behavioral, sociocultural, and faith-based factors associated with HIV/AIDS KAPs and HIV seropositivity. Results shows that 59.8% of the 3,869 participants were females (40.2% of males), 55.4% were teenage school students. Mean age of the participants was 18.3 (SD: 5.2) years; 58% of teenagers lacked appropriate knowledge on the 6 high-risk behaviors for HIV infection. Overall, “forced sex history” was reported by 28.7% of participants, including 42.2% of teenage school students; of them, 50.8% of forced sex incidents occurred at age < 15 years. Overall HIV positive test rate was 11.1% (10.7% in teenagers); it was 11.5% in participants from conventional Christian communities, 12.9% in participants from liberal Christian and spiritual communities, 12.5% in Muslims, 0% in those from Unificationist faith community. On the other hand, when asked about condom use in case of occasional sex for sexually active individuals, a higher proportion of teenagers did not use it, 50.8% (vs. 18.9% in older subjects); only 5% of teenagers (vs. 10.6%) condom users utilized it consistently for occasional sex. HIV seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR=1.46 (0.5); p<0.05), age of first sex (OR=1.79 (0.6); p<0.01 and history of forced sex (OR=1.59 (0.3); p<0.05), whereas it was negatively associated with knowledge on high-risk behaviors for HIV infection (OR=1.97(0.4); p<0.01) and religious affiliation (conventional Christianity vs. non-conventional/spiritual communities; OR=1.91 (0.1); p<0.05). Findings from this study suggest that history of forced sex, age at first sex and religious affiliation were determinants of HIV seropositivity, particularly in young subjects. It is imperative to improve awareness and implement efficient moral, behavioral and school health education program targeting the major local HIV-associated risk behaviors in DRC.

A Prognostic Inspection and Proactive Maintenance System (PIPM) to Bring Snowball Effects on the Transition to the Cir-cular Economy and a Carbon-Neutral Society 

Journal of Hyojeong Academia 2, 2023 

by Junhyong Kim, Inho Cho and Youngsik Pyun

Abstract The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations and the international community are consist of 17 goals and 169 specific goals and aim to solve the global poverty problem and realize sustainable development between 2016 and 2030. No poverty, Zero hunger, Good health and well-being, Quality education, Gender equality, Clean water and sanitation, Affordable and clean energy, Decent work and economic growth, Industry, innovation and infrastructure, Reduced inequalities, Sustainable cities and communities, Responsible consumption and production, climate action, Life below water, Life on land, Peace, justice and strong institutions, Partnerships for the goals are the 17 goals. Transitioning to the Circular Economy and a Carbon-Neutral Society could be the main structure to realize these SDGs. A Prognostic Inspection and Proactive Maintenance System (PIPM) of rolling bearings can renew service life repetitively by about three times and thus it could be an innovative solution to change rolling bearing supply chain. The PIPM system of rolling bearings will be a good solution to realize a circular economy system and to reduce CO2 emission significantly. One ton of bearings of the PIPM system can save more than 20 tons CO2 emissions. The PIPM system could be applied to mechanical components which need replacement repetitively due to fatigue stress and so it could bring snowball effects on the transition to the Circular Economy and a Carbon-Neutral Society.

The reality and cause of global warming and what can be done about it

Journal of Hyojeong Academia 2, 2023 

J. Andrew Combs

Abstract The observed mean global surface temperature has increased 1.2 ℃ above pre-industrial values along with an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) above 400 ppm last seen millions of years ago when sea-levels were 20 meters higher. A causal link between the rising global temperatures with accumulating atmospheric greenhouse gases is established using a simple no-feedback radiative model and shows changing CO2 concentration is the dominant driver. Extrapolating fits to temperatures and CO2 observations on a “business-as-usual” basis yields an additional 0.32 ℃ temperature rise in 20 years with CO2 doubling to 556 ppm in 31 years and suggests an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 3.4 ℃. An aggressive pursuit of carbon replacement and sequestration strategies is recommended, employing limited solar geoengineering in the polar regions if necessary to limit further erosion of ice-shelves. Policies should be rendered, not only to achieve net-zero goals, but to reduce CO2 levels below 400 ppm to avoid risking an otherwise inevitable and dramatic sea-level rise.

In-silico analysis and screening of trehalose biosynthesis path-ways in Antarctica lichen-associated Variovorax sp. PAMC28711

Journal of Hyojeong Academia 2, 2023 

Prasansah Shrestha1, Jayram Karmacharya2 and Tae-Jin Oh1,2,3*

Abstract Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide that is abundantly present in nature. Its presence in cells as several effects, especially because it acts as a natural defender of proteins and membranes. It is utilized in food, cosmetics, and medications because of its excellent water retention properties. Following its esterification with fatty acids of different chain lengths, trehalose has also been shown to have anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm, and anti-inflammatory properties. Trehalose plays a structural part in the bacterial cell wall’s adaptive reactions to stressors including osmotic variations high temperature. Additionally, it was proposed that when bacterial cells are exposed to harsh environment challenges such as heat, cold, desiccation, or reactive oxygen species, these organisms biosynthesize high concentrations of both intra- and extracellular trehalose to help them to survive. Therefore, we analyzed Variovorax sp. PAMC28711 isolated from Antarctica, which was predicted by bioinformatics tools (RAST, Prokka, KEGG, CGView Server, and MetaCyc) to predict the enzymes involved in the different pathways of trehalose production. Furthermore, TLC analysis was carried out to characterize various trehalose biosynthesis pathways. According to the findings, it was revealed that our polar bacteria Variovorax sp. PAMC28711 have potential to produce trehalose through three (Trehalose-6 phosphate synthase/trehalose-6-phosphat phosphatase, Trehalase synthase, and Maltooligosyl-trehalose synthase/maltooligosyl-trehalose trehalohydrolase) pathways. We anticipate that this strain could be of potential use for manufacturing trehalose on the industrial scale.

The Code Case N-931 and Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification Technology for Improving Service Life and Safety of Nuclear Power Plant

Journal of Hyojeong Academia 2, 2023 

Junhyong Kim, Inho Cho, Youngsik Pyun and Auezhan Amanov

Abstract We are trying to apply surface stress improvement process (SSIP) to the repair and maintenance of nuclear power components, mainly in the United States and Japan. A representative example is applying water jet peening (WJP) and laser peening (LP) technology to parts to extend their lifespan. The biggest problem with the lifespan of nuclear power equipment is the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which is directly related to safety. The SSIP is one of the good ways to mitigate SCC. The Code Case N-931 “Performance and Qualification Criteria for Mitigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking by Surface Stress Improvement: Section III, Division 1 and 3’ was developed since 2017 by the task group “Advanced Surface Stress Improvement Technology” in Korea International Working Group (KIWG) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). This case provides performance and qualification criteria for the pre-service application of a SSIP to items potentially susceptible to SCC, as a means to prevent crack initiation. Mitigation of items to the requirements of this case does not modify or change the in-service inspection (ISI) requirements for those items. This Code Case is to be used for SSIP such as ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM), WJP, LP that satisfy the performance criteria and qualification criteria defined in this case. Two major technical bases for this Code Case are “PVP2022-85151” and “EPRI Report 3002018458”. Brief summary of UNSM technology and two technical bases is introduced.

Potential and Actual Economic Gains of Restoring Degraded Lands: A Review

Journal of Hyojeong Academia 2, 2023 

Haileselassie Ghebremariam Araya, Oliver Vivian Wasonga, Stephen Mureithi and Emiru Berhane

Abstract Land degradation is a major challenge to human beings agricultural production and sustainable development. Proven strategies for the rehabilitation of degraded areas are urgently needed before conditions become irreversible. Diverse forms of restorations have been widely practiced to rehabilitate and restore degraded lands and other environmental problems. The aim of this review was to examine the perceived and actual socio-economic benefits and challenges of restoring degraded lands. Rehabilitation interventions have had a positive impact on livelihoods by providing more forage for animals, wood products, and cash income through small-scale and microenterprises sale of forest products as well as avoiding of economic losses due to soil degradation. However, biophysical and institutional challenges, lack of clear and negotiated benefit-sharing mechanisms are the main constraints for sustainability. These constraints highlight the need to have practical and interactive community participation and involvement of the private sector involvement in restoration projects. Many examples in Africa, China, Australia, Europe and South Korea demonstrate the power to enhance or deter development when restoration of degraded lands is taken seriously or not. Effective restoration strategies accompanied by the active involvement of the local communities and strengthening of their subsequent management system are therefore essential. Sustaining the positive impacts of restoration requires negotiating goals among stakeholders, developing contextualized management plan, enhancing economic returns beyond the restoration phase, and defining clear and negotiated by-laws.

Can We Formulate a Religion Based on Science and Vice-versa?

Journal of Hyojeong Academia 2, 2023 

Lalit Mohan Kukreja

Science is objectivity and evidence-based knowledge about nature, whereas religion is faith and belief based on experience and feelings. Science is necessary for modern living, our wellbeing and survival; religion is necessary for overcoming the mental stress due to fears of unknown and ethical values for our collective co-existence. While both are products of social collaborations and understanding, humans have dichotomous beliefs in religions visà-vis science. We explore if science and religion can be unified despite these dichotomies. We also propose formulation of a religion based on science and vice-versa. The basis of creation and existence in science is understood to be based on fundamental forces of nature, like gravity, electromagnetic, nuclear and the rest of those. Some of these forces are well understood but others are not yet fully understood or even might be unknown or unknowable. As we evolve evidence-based knowledge about nature some of the unknowns of the domain of religion become known and occupy the domain of science. This migration of unknowns of religions to knowns of science is perennial and irreversible. Therefore, we find that epistemologically religion and science are complimentary to each other and hence should be mutually adaptive even in modern times. Further, we propose a science-based model of religion and vice versa to bring a consonance between the two to reshape these entities, which could be the best of both worlds. While science should work on the areas of religions and accept its own limitations, the religions should adopt the logical findings of science to benefit the humankind comprehensively. The possible routes to this model and its different nuances are presented and discussed herewith. If religion can adopt these fundamental truths of nature and science, while accepting its limitations, can provide solace to humanity due to unknowns of nature, a harmoniousness between the two can emerge (Please download to read more).

bottom of page